Resource Management

Resource Management 329x219








Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land.

~Aldo Leopold  

 Chickasaw National Wildlife Refuge was authorized by the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929 (16 U.S.C. 715d) for “... use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.”  

The refuge practices several different types of management techniques to provide optimum habitat for wintering waterfowl.  

Click Next to learn about these practices.

Moist Soil Impoundments

Moist Soil wetlands historically occurred where openings existed in bottomland hardwoods.  Forest openings were often caused by high winds, catastrophic floods, beavers, fires, etc.  Man-made impoundments are commonly managed as moist-soil wetlands.  Moist-soil areas are typified by seed producing annuals such as smartweed, wild millet, and sprangletop.  Planting moist-soil areas is not necessary because native plant seeds are abundant in frequently flooded soils.  Over 2,500 pounds per acre of seed can be produced in a properly managed moist-soil area.  (Wetland Management for Waterfowl-A Handbook 2007)

Moist soil habitats are an integral part of managing public wetlands for waterfowl as these food resources are provided in large part only on state and federal lands. There are approximately 1,186 acres of agriculture/moist soil open lands on the refuge. In any given year, approximately 25 percent of these lands are managed for agricultural production and 75 percent are managed for moist soil, although the ratio varies from year to year due to river flooding and other factors.

Click next to learn about our valuable bottomland hardwood forests.

Bottomland Hardwood Forests 

The refuge’s 18,419 acres of mixed bottomland hardwoods consist of black willow, eastern cottonwood, overcup oak, cherrybark oak, willow oak, water oak, Nuttall oak, sugarberry, bald cypress, sweet pecan, bitter pecan, sweetgum, and green ash. Forest management practices are used in these areas to maintain an optimal diversity of forest habitat for wildlife. Mast production in the bottomland hardwood habitats provides an important food source for a wide variety of wildlife, including migratory waterfowl, deer, squirrel, and turkey. During the winter and spring months, backwaters typically flood thousands of acres of bottomland hardwoods, providing valuable waterfowl habitat.

25 million acres of bottomland hardwood forests once dominated the Lower Mississippi Aluvial Valley.  Today, over 95% of this important wetland habitat has been cleared for agriculture and other purposes.   Due to the previous destruction of bottomland hardwood forests, the Chickasaw NWR plants corn to replace the valuable acorns that were once an essential food in our area for migratory waterfowl.  

Click next to learn more about our farming techniques.  


Agricultural crops play an important role in the scheme of migratory bird management, as they provide a source of high-energy carbohydrates needed during periods of cold weather.  Typically, refuges rotate crops and moist soils to ensure a readily available source of food for wildlife, and to meet refuge objectives set forth in the West Tennessee National Wildlife Refuges Conservation Plan.  Acreage varies from year to year, based on management needs.  These crops are left standing in the fields and provide supplemental forage for resident and migratory wildlife, specifically migratory waterfowl. 

 The refuges' farming program will continue to address the lack of habitat issues that affect migratory bird populations.